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Astronomy

Professional Development in K-12 education sometimes has a poor reputation among

Professional Development in K-12 education sometimes has a poor reputation among teachers. Use the articles by Schwarz and Tomlinson to briefly discuss the issues surrounding PD and then share which idea(s) from Evaluating Teaching might positively impact staff attitudes about professional development. Explain why
Help Teachers Become Master Learners: Professional development needs greater vision and clarity.
Authors:
Tomlinson, Carol Ann1 cat3y@virginia.edu
Source:
Educational Leadership. Nov2018, Vol. 76 Issue 3, p88-89. 2p.
Document Type:
Article
Subject Terms:
*Teacher development
*Professional education
*Effective teaching
*Educational leadership
*Teacher leadership
Abstract:
The article discusses the role of teacher professional learning communities in addressing schoolwide issues. Topics discussed include importance of effective teaching to engage students and facilitate the development of their skills; importance of engagement in professional learning for educational leadership; and importance of teachers to meaningfully engage with their own learning.
Author Affiliations:
1William Clay Parrish Jr. Professor and Chair of Educational Leadership, Foundation, and Policy at the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia in Charlottesville
ISSN:
0013-1784
Accession Number:
132792690
Database:
Education Research Complete
Teachers and professional development providers weigh in on three commonly critiqued PD practices. What makes these experiences so frustrating, and what should schools and districts be doing instead?
NO DIFFERENTIATION FOR EXPERIENCE: Veterans and new teachers are all in the same room together, working on the same skill.
John Troutman McCrann, a math teacher at Harvest Collegiate High School in New York City, would be happy if he never had to hear someone explain how to write a class objective again.
“I’ve been teaching for 13 years. I’ve been in that PD 13 times,” said McCrann. By this point, he said, there’s not much more he could gain from a session covering the basics of objective-setting—he’s already mastered the skill.
Before requiring all teachers to attend PD on a certain topic, schools should pre-assess their staff—just as teachers would their students, said McCrann. Then, facilitators could group teachers based on their ability level. Those who were already proficient could lead groups, or move on to a new skill.
McCrann also suggested that schools and districts could consider exempting experienced teachers from trainings on foundational skills. “I would love it if, at a certain point, veteran teachers didn’t have to go to some of the meetings,” he said.
CONSTANTLY SWITCHING FOCUS: One year, the district initiative is formative assessments. The next, it’s social-emotional learning. And there isn’t much conversation around how to integrate new approaches with existing ones.
Brittany Franckowiak, a biology teacher at Wilde Lake High School in Columbia, Md., said that facilitators should understand that teachers already have a strong sense of what works and what doesn’t in their classrooms. “[Acknowledge] that you are talking to people who currently have a teaching practice,” she said.
Often, she said, a facilitator will present a lesson, a unit, or an entire new curriculum with the expectation that teachers will adopt it wholesale. Instead, said Franckowiak, presenters should be asking teachers: “What are you already doing, and how might that be informed by this new lens or this new framework?”
It’s the school’s or district’s responsibility to put thought into the PD scope and sequence, said Mandy Flora, a fellow at Teaching Lab, a nonprofit that supports teacher-led PD. That can sometimes mean asking hard questions about attractive new initiatives—and only adopting those that line up with the broader vision that the system is trying to achieve, she said.
LACK OF FOLLOW-UP: Teachers attend a one-off presentation or workshop, but don’t receive support or guidance for integrating new practices.
“We never want to give [teachers] a set of information and then just walk away,” said Dina Strasser, a project manager of curriculum implementation at EL Education.
But a cycle of implementation, reflection, and feedback doesn’t just happen—it needs to be scheduled, said Strasser. Districts should be planning these embedded PD practices, “as you would your testing schedule,” she said.
EdWeek Twitter Poll
Teachers: Have you ever felt that professional development didn’t really treat you like a professional, or disrespected your expertise?
A few times. 37%
This happens often. 56
Never. 7
TOTAL: 318 votes
GRAPH: EdWeek Twitter Poll
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Categories
Astronomy

Preamble: You should know that the speed of light, c = 300,000 km/sec The equati

Preamble: You should know that the speed of light, c = 300,000 km/sec The equation for distance, d, is: d = v × t, where d is the distance, v is the speed and t is the time. Equivalently, time, t = d/v, where, as before d is the distance and v is the speed. Make sure your units are consistent and make sense. Give your answer in a unit that makes sense given the context – is the time in hours, days, years or centuries? Be sensible about the significant figures! “About a million years” is a sensible answer; 1,032,468.434194 years is nonsensical. Show your work, you will not get credit for simply writing down an answer. State your assumptions if you make some additional assumptions to get your answer. Assume that a person can walk at 5 km/hour. For eight hours per day. Assume that driving in a car, you can travel 100 km/hour for twelve hours per day. Assume that flying in an airplane you can travel at 1000 km/hour without stopping to rest. Assume that in a rocket you can travel at 30 km/sec, without stopping for rest! Actual Questions Begin Here… 1. Read about the JWST(https://www.newscientist.com/definition/james-webb-space-telescope-jwst/) – Link to New Scientist article. see also these (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Webb_Space_Telescope) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYnrKkEu43I&feature=youtu.be) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwlIyO5jOiE) (https://jwst.nasa.gov/content/about/index.html) In your own words, summarize what this project is, and why it is being done, and what we hope to learn. (4 pts) 2. If you live 2 km (a little over a mile) from campus, how much time should you leave before class if you decide to walk? If you decide to go to Washington DC, the distance is just about 400 km. How long does it take to drive to DC? If you had to walk instead, how long would it take you? It is about 4000 km from State College to the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA. How long would it take you to walk there? How long to fly, and how long to drive (ignore take off, landing, runway holds and delays of inbound aircraft from Philly due to weather or maintenance)? Approximately how long would it take in a rocket, at the speed indicated above? 3. Read about the Hubble Ultra Deep Field(https://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/june/hubble-team-unveils-most-colorful-view-of-universe-captured-by-space-telescope), see also this (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Ultra-Deep_Field). In your own words, summarize what was done in this project, and why, and what we learned. (4 pts) 4. In your own words, describe and discuss “Olber’s Paradox”. Briefly summarize its importance in cosmology and discuss the resolution of the paradox in current cosmological models. Read the short story The Last Question by I. Asimov (http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~gamvrosi/thelastq.html), then read the short story The Nine Billion Names of God by A.C. Clarke (https://urbigenous.net/library/nine_billion_names_of_god.html). In your own words, compare and contrast the two stories Briefly discuss your personal impression of the stories and what they tell you. (4 pts)

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Astronomy

Question 1: What is the difference between geocentric versus heliocentric models

Question 1: What is the difference between geocentric versus heliocentric models of our solar system? 1 paragraph
Question 2: If there is gravity where the International Space Station (ISS) is located above Earth, why doesn’t the space station get pulled back down to Earth? Can we use this same concept for the Earth orbiting the Sun? Moon orbiting the Earth?
Answer in 150-200 words

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Astronomy

Question 1: What is the difference between geocentric versus heliocentric models

Question 1: What is the difference between geocentric versus heliocentric models of our solar system? 1 paragraph
Question 2: If there is gravity where the International Space Station (ISS) is located above Earth, why doesn’t the space station get pulled back down to Earth? Can we use this same concept for the Earth orbiting the Sun? Moon orbiting the Earth?
Answer in 150-200 words

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Astronomy

The instructions are attached. The data needed is as follows. Date of experim

The instructions are attached. The data needed is as follows.
Date of experiment 12.9.22
Sunrise 6:57a Sunset 5:29p
Length of daylight 10:33
Height of gnomon is 41″
True noon was 11:15am by experiment.
location is Contoocook NH 43.2397270, -71.7158842
the angle of the sun at true noon was 1 degree
Please incorporate this information into the report as well as answering the questions in the attached instructions
any additional graphs would be appreciated however I will incorporate photos from myself

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Astronomy

Two statements known as the anthropic principles are often used to describe homo

Two statements known as the anthropic principles are often used to describe homosapiens’ place in the universe. Discuss each using support from the Big Bang Theory and any other topic presented in class you deem appropriate. Also, discuss which principle you believe is most valid.
The Strong Anthropic Principle: Because we are here, the universe is the way it is.
The Weak Anthropic Principle: Because the universe is the way it is, we are here.

Categories
Astronomy

Two statements known as the anthropic principles are often used to describe homo

Two statements known as the anthropic principles are often used to describe homosapiens’ place in the universe. Discuss each using support from the Big Bang Theory and any other topic presented in class you deem appropriate. Also, discuss which principle you believe is most valid.
The Strong Anthropic Principle: Because we are here, the universe is the way it is.
The Weak Anthropic Principle: Because the universe is the way it is, we are here.

Categories
Astronomy

-3 to 5 typewritten pages, double spaced. 12 point Times New Roman font and 1 in

-3 to 5 typewritten pages, double spaced. 12 point Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins.
– Title page (not included in total page count) and your name.
-There should be limited quotations.
-At least 3 reources
– List of references (very important). You may follow the Harcourt Brace Manual, the Turabian/Chicago Manual of style or the APA, MLA, AMA, research paper style guidelines.

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Astronomy

-3 to 5 typewritten pages, double spaced. 12 point Times New Roman font and 1 in

-3 to 5 typewritten pages, double spaced. 12 point Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins.
– Title page (not included in total page count) and your name.
-There should be limited quotations.
-At least 3 reources
– List of references (very important). You may follow the Harcourt Brace Manual, the Turabian/Chicago Manual of style or the APA, MLA, AMA, research paper style guidelines.

Categories
Astronomy

Submit/upload a 2-page, doubled spaced, font size 12, research paper based on St

Submit/upload a 2-page, doubled spaced, font size 12, research paper based on Steps 1 and 2. Separate page for work cited. Use APA format (reference Student Toolbox: APA References) paying special attention to citations/references. It is not mandatory to add an abstract. (100 points)
Here is my thesis statement if it helps:
The sun’s atmosphere is made up of several different layers, but the main layers are the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona. Energy builds up over millions of years within these main layers, which is what we detect as sunlight. The photosphere is the innermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere, and this layer is where most of the sun’s energy is emitted. The chromosphere is the layer above the photosphere and this layer gives off a reddish glow as it burns off super-heated hydrogen. And finally, the third layer of the sun’s atmosphere is called the corona, which has temperatures that can get as high as 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit, which is 300 times hotter than the photosphere.